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05 July Current For All Competition Exams

1. Cabinet approved accession to WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT), 1996 and WIPO Performance and

Phonograms Treaty (WPPT), 1996

  • These treaties will extend coverage of copyright to the internet and the digital environment.
  • The approval is a step towards the objective laid in the National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy adopted by the Government on 12th May 2016.
    National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy- aims to get value for IPRs through commercialization by providing guidance and support to EPR owners about commercial opportunities of e-commerce through the Internet and mobile platforms.
  • Both the treaties provide the framework for creators and rights owners to use technical tools to protect their works and safeguard information about their use i.e. Protection of Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) and Rights Management Information (RMI).

Related Information

Copyright Act, 1957

  • The Copyright Act, 1957 was amended in 2012 to bring it in conformity, with WCT and WPPT.
  • These include the amendment in the definition of “Communication to the public” to make it applicable to the digital environment (Section 2(ff)) as also introduced provisions related to Technological.
  • Other Important sections of the acts are-
    (a) Protection Measures (Section 65A) & 
    (b) Rights Management Information (Section 65B)
    (c) Moral rights of performers (Section 38B); 
    (d) Exclusive rights of the performers (Section 38A); 
    (e) Safe harbour provisions over electronic medium (Section 52 (1) (b) and (c))

WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT)

  • The treaty came in force on March 6, 2002, and has been adopted by 96 contracting parties till date.
  • It is a special agreement under Berne Convention (for protection of literary and artistic works).
  • It has provisions to extend the protection of copyrights contained therein to the digital environment.
  • Further, it recognises the rights specific to the digital environment, of making work available, to address “on-demand” and other interactive modes of access.

WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT)

  • It came in force on May 20, 2002, and has 96 contracting parties as its members.
  • WPPT deals with rights of two kinds of beneficiaries, particularly in the digital environment – 
    (i) Performers (actors, singers, musicians etc.) 
    (ii) Producers of Phonograms (Sound recordings).
  • The treaty empowers right owners in their negotiations with new digital platforms and distributors.
  • It recognizes the moral rights of the performers for the first time & provides exclusive economic rights to them.

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Source-PIB

2. Koala bear genome decoded for the first time

  • More than 50 researchers in seven countries uncovered 26,558 koala genes, yielding vital DNA clues for vaccines against diseases such as sexually transmitted chlamydia.
  • The genome has allowed us to understand the koala immune genes in detail for the first time.

Related Information

Koala

  • The koala is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.
  • The koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland’s eastern and southern regions, inhabiting Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia.
  • The International Union for Conservation of Nature qualifies the koala’s protection status as “vulnerable”.

Source- Times of India

3. ISRO’s first ‘pad abort’ test successful

  • The first ‘pad abort’ test critical for a future human space mission was conducted successfully.
  • The test was conducted at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.
  • The Pad Abort Test (PAT) demonstrated the safe recovery of the crew module in case of any exigency at the launch pad.
  • The PAT (pad abort test) is the first in a series of tests to qualify a crew escape system technology of a manned mission in the future.
  • The Crew Escape System is an emergency escape measure to quickly pull the crew module — the astronaut cabin — along with astronauts out to a safe distance from the launch vehicle in the event of a launch abort.
  • The rockets are solid-fuel powered and specially designed for quickly ejecting the crew module and astronauts to a safe distance without exceeding the safe G-levels.

Source- The Hindu

4. ‘Khan Prahari’ App and Coal Mine Surveillance & Management System (CMSMS)

  • The Union Minister Shri Piyush Goyal has launched the CMSMS and Mobile Application ‘Khan Prahari’.
  • The basic objective of CMSMS is reporting, monitoring and taking suitable action on unauthorised coal mining activities.
  • The CMSMS is a web-based GIS application through which location of sites for unauthorised mining can be detected.
  • The leasehold boundary of all the coal mines is displayed on this map.
  • The system will use satellite data to detect changes by which unauthorised mining activity extending beyond the allotted lease area can be detected and suitable action can be taken on it.
  • The system also uses information provided by responsible citizens using smartphones using the mobile application “Khan Prahari’.
  • Khan Prahari is a tool for reporting any activity taking place related to illegal coal mining like rat-hole mining, pilferage etc.
  • Hence, both satellite data and human information will be used to capture information on the unauthorised mining activities.

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Source-PIB

5. Agartala Airport to be named after Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishor Manikya Bahadur

  • Tripura government announced to rename Agartala Airport as Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishor Manika Bahadur.
  • Maharaja Bir Bikaram Kishor Manikya Bahadur sowed the seeds for the development of a modern Tripura.

Source- AIR

6. Sports Authority of India renamed as Sports India

Related Information

  • The Sports Authority of India (SAI) is an apex National Sports body established in 1984 by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports of Government of India for the development of sport in India.

Source- AIR

7. NITI Aayog to organise India’s First Global Mobility Summit

  • NITI Aayog, in collaboration with various ministries and industry partners, is organising ‘MOVE: Global Mobility Summit’ in New Delhi on 7th and 8th September 2018.
  • This Summit will help drive Government’s goals for vehicle electrification, renewable energy integration and job growth and also speed up India’s transition to a clean energy economy.
  • The Summit will constitute three designated components – The Conclave, the Expo and the Featured Events.

Source-PIB

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